IOT stands for Internet of Things. It is a network in which various Things can communicate with each other using a Network as a means of communication between them. Usually, this Network will be an internet.
Internet of things is a type of embedded system that connects to the internet. Embedded systems tend to be small software programs that implement a few functions. Internet of Things may be updated constantly according to the environment and learn by itself.
No, the internet is not actually needed all the time. But there should be some network present so that the devices are capable of speaking with each other.
Arduino is an open-source electronics platform which has easy to use both hardware and software. Arduino boards are a Microcontroller which is capable of reading input from sensors to controlling motors and etc. programmatically.
The Arduino Software (IDE) allows you to write programs and upload them to your board. A bootloader is needed to upload or flash the code to the board.
It has several communication protocols like I2C, SPI, Serial, PWM and etc. 8. What programming language is used to code Arduino? Ans: Basically C programming language is used to code Arduino boards
Raspberry Pi is a credit card sized computer which is capable of doing all operations like a conventional computer. But it also has other built-in features like onboard Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GPIO pins to communicate with other external Things.
Basically, Arduino is a micro-controller and Raspberry Pi is a microprocessor. Raspberry Pi is slightly superior to Arduino boards like it has better CPU and GPU processing along with onboard Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Ethernet and etc.
Raspberry Pi works in 5V input voltage and for Arduino, its operating voltage is between 5-12V. Arduino boards have a regulator, which help is work on a different input voltage.
Similar to Arduino boards Raspberry pi also has several communication protocols like I2C, SPI, Serial, PWM and etc.
GPIO stands for General Purpose Input and Output pins. It is capable of reading and writing data from development boards like Raspberry and Arduino to other Sensors, motors, actuators, and etc.
Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ was the latest release of RPi team with much better CPU @ 1.4GHz on March 18, 2018.
Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ as 40 GPIO pins which can only read and write digital data.
Interrupts allow certain important tasks to happen in the background and are enabled by default. An Interrupt’s job is to make sure that the processor responds quickly to important events. When a certain signal is detected, an Interrupt interrupts whatever the processor is doing, and executes some code designed to react.
The official operating system for Raspberry Pi is Raspbian. Although it supports other operating systems like Kali Linux, OSMC, Windows 10 IOT Core, Android Things, RetroPie and etc.
You can use SSH into Raspberry Pi and run in headless mode. Latest Raspbian OS has inbuilt VNC server installed with that you can take remote desktop on Raspberry Pi.
Wi-Fi and Bluetooth/BLE are the wireless communications present in Raspberry Pi.
RPi.GPIO is the python libraries used in Raspberry Pi to control GPIO pins.
Yes, RPI-gpio is the node library used control Raspberry Pi GPIO pins.
digitalRead() and digitalWrite() are respectively used to read and write digital data to the sensors. analogRead() and analogWrite() are respectively used to read and write analog data to the sensors.
Arduino shields are modular circuit boards that piggyback onto your Arduino to instill it with extra functionality.
MPU6050- Gyroscope, ADXL345 – Accelerometer, piezoelectric sensor and etc.
PWM stands for Pulse Width Modulation. Pulse width modulation allows us to vary how much time the signal is high in an analog fashion. While the signal can only be high (usually 5V) or low (ground) at any time, we can change the proportion of time the signal is high compared to when it is low over a consistent time interval.
Dimming LED, controlling the speed of DC motor, controlling the direction of a servo motor and etc.
A relay is used to control any home appliances from any IOT or Embedded devices. A relay is nothing but an electrically operated switch.
ZigBee is a wireless Technology with IEEE 802.15.4 based high-level communication protocols which can use to create personal area networks with small, low-power devices for home automation, medical device, and other low-power low bandwidth needs. Hence, ZigBee is a low-power, low data rate, and close proximity wireless ad hoc network.
BLE stands for Bluetooth Low Energy. Bluetooth Low Energy uses the same 2.4 GHz radio frequencies as classic Bluetooth but uses less power to transmit distance over a short distance.
Unlike classic Bluetooth, BLE remains in sleep mode constantly except for when a connection is initiated. It is used in applications that do not need to exchange large amounts of data and can, therefore, run on battery power for years at a cheaper cost, therefore it is used as one of the means of exchanging data between the devices.
MicroPython is a lean and efficient implementation of the Python 3 programming language that includes a small subset of the Python standard library and is optimized to run on microcontrollers such as NodeMCU.
There are 3 hardware serial interfaces are there in ESP32. 37. What firmware can be flashed into NodeMCU? Ans: Either Arduino or MicroPython firmware can be flashed into NodeMCU.
Publisher – The devices which transmit or send data over the MQ broker. Subscribers – The devices which consume or reads data over the MQ broker.
Mosquito MQTT, Cloud MQTT, and PubNub are the commonly known MQTT services available.
Yes, with the help of ESP8266WebServer Arduino library. This library is for ESP8266. Such similar libraries are also available for other NodeMCU board. 42. What are other development boards available? Ans: Other boards such as Beagle Bone Black, BananaPi, Intel’s Galileo, Asus Tinker Board, MSP 430 Launchpad, and etc.
Windows 10 IOT Core is a full-fledged operating system based on Windows 10 specifically designed to operate on embedded devices. This will empower you to build a single universal app experience.
Manufacturing, Transportation, Utilities, Healthcare, Consumer electronics, and cars.
Power utilization and Security will be the major challenges faced in IOT. As all devices are connected to one single network, a small bug implanted into the network will affect all those devices which lead to a chaos.
No, IOT cannot take the place of the human brain. As the human brain is very complex, self-learning, and the decision making capability makes every known device incomparable to it.
Ans: As per Gartner’s report, a total count of IOT devices may hit up to 21 Billion by 2020 worldwide.
Smart Homes, self-driven cars and etc. are the biggest implementations so far.
It is an Android-based operating system particularly build for embedded devices like Raspberry Pi and so on.
1.Temperature sensors 2.Proximity sensor 3.Pressure sensor 4.Gas sensor 5.Smoke sensor 6.IR sensors 7.Motion detection sensors
I will use smoke sensor which is detect fire and smoke
I will use Thermocouples which is used for measuring the voltage.
It will measuring the temperature with a change in voltage, if temperature increases thermocoupes output voltage will be increased
1.soil moisture sensor 2.Airflow sensors 3.Electro chemical sensors
It used to measure the air level in soil,we can measure it from the one location or dynamically get from multiple places from the garden.
yes its possible, by using ultrasonic sensor we can make our own radar, which is detect object presence and distance
Using Water quality sensors, i can detect the quality of waters
1.Total organic carbon sensor 2.Turbidity sensor 3.Conductivity sensor 4.pH sensor
yes i have, by using light detecting sensors we can switch off street light automatically, which is saved lot of electricity.