Openstack is defined as the future of cloud computing wherein Openstack can be used for handling a large group of virtual machines with the help of the graphical user interface. The working of Openstack is similar to Linux and it is free and open-source.
Following is the table explaining the difference between Openstack and AWS: Parameter Openstack AWS OS (Operating System) used Operating system provided by AMIs through AWS Operating system provided by the cloud administrator License Open-source Provided by Amazon Repetition of operations Done through text files Done through templates
Following are the advantages of using Openstack: For IT users, it can provide a strong foundation when it comes to delivering the self-storage. Easy to handle low-cost storage. Licensing fees can be managed by using Openstack as virtual machines are used.
Following are the key features of Openstack: Horizon: It is the first key feature through which administrators get an idea about the functioning of the cloud. Nova: It is used for handling multiple virtual machines and other computing tasks. Swift: It is used for understanding the storage system. Cinder: It is used as a block storage system so as to access files at a faster speed. Neutron: It is used for building the connectivity between the components while they are developed. Keystone: It is used for providing the identity list and is used as mapping techniques. Glance: It is used for providing the image information of hard disks where images are used as templates. Ceilometer: It is used for providing billing services to cloud users. Heat: It is used for maintaining the cloud infrastructure and also allowing developers to illustrate the cloud requirements.
Openstack provides two types of storages: Ephemeral storage Persistent storage
Following are the three types of persistent storage provided by Openstack: Object storage Block storage File-based storage
Object storage is applied in Openstack with the help of Object Storage service (swift). With the help of REST API, users can access binary objects. Following are the other advantages of object storage: Openstack stores all its virtual machine images in the object storage system. Object storage works with the Openstack dashboard. Object storage systems can be used for multiple data centers.
Block storage is applied in Openstack with the help of Block storage service (cinder). Block storage provides multiple back ends in the form of drivers. Since it is persistent storage it can be detached and reattached from one instance to another.
The file-based storage system in Openstack provides a set of services that are used for managing multiple files at the same time and also can be exchanged with multiple users at the same time.
Following is the table explaining the difference between ephemeral storage, block storage, object storage, and file-based storage:
Following are the commodity storage technologies: Ceph LVM Gluster Sheepdog NFS iSCSI ZFS
Sheepdog is one of the commodity storage which is used as a userspace distributed storage system. It has a powerful virtual disk management features such as rollback, cloning, snapshot, and thin provisioning.
ZFS provides the back-ends for Openstack block storage which is supported by the Solaris-based system like Illumos. It has many advantages over ext4.
Following are the advantages of Ceph: The control over data distribution and replication strategies are good in Ceph. It is used as a support system for fast booting from the volume. The object storage and block storage are consolidated.
User: Users are members of multiple projects. Tenant: It is also known as project or accounts which refers to the group of users. The projects refer to the organizational units of cloud processing. Role: It is defined as the position which is used for mapping the user.
Keystone identity service is the most important identity service in Openstack and it is used for executing complete Openstack identity API. it is responsible for user management and service catalog. It is used for tracking users and their permissions.
Following are the storage locations for virtual machine images in Openstack: Openstack object storage Filesystem HTTP S3 Rados Block Device GridFSMaster Openstack
Following are the networking hardware in Openstack: Subnets Ports Vendor Plugins Routers Networks
Following are the commands to generate key pairs: ssh-keygen ssh nova keypair-add-pub_key id_rsa.pub mykey
Following are the components of the OpenStack compute: Scheduler Volume worker Nova-network Nova-compute Rabbit-MQ server API server
Hypervisor is used as a term for defining a virtual machine monitor which includes hardware, software, and firmware components that run on the virtual machine. There are multiple hypervisors in Openstack.
Following are the hypervisors supported by the Openstack: Kernal-based virtual machine Linux Containers having Linux-based virtual machines Quick EMUlator used for development purposes Used Mode Linux used for development purpose Server visualization with Microsoft’s Hyper-V
Following are the different networking options in Openstack: Retry filter Instance locality filter Availability zone filter Capacity filter Different back-end filter
The function of the filter scheduler is to provide support for compute nodes and also filtering and weighting to notify where a new instance has to be created. It first creates a dictionary for unfiltered hosts which is then filtered based on their properties.
Following are the two commands used for pausing and unpausing an instance: $ novaunpause INSTANCE_NAME $ nova pause INSTANCE_NAME
Following are the three important modular architecture of Openstack: Openstack compute: It is used for managing large networks on the virtual machine. Image service: It is used for providing delivery service for discovering and registering of the virtual machine images. Openstack object storage: It is used as a storage system provides support for two different storage: object storage and block storage.
Following is the command used for managing floating IP address in Openstack: nova floating-ip-*
Yes, it is possible to see the list of roles and associated IDs in Openstack.
By using the keystone role list we can see the list of roles and associated IDs in Openstack.
By using the command sudo nova-manage a project or tenant can be assigned to a user.
By using the command sudo nova-manage a user can be created in Openstack.
The term flavor refers to an available hardware configuration of a server that is used for defining the size of the virtual server that is to be launched.
The command used for listing IP address information is as follows: $ nova floating-ip-pool-list
SDK stands for Software Development Kit which is used for writing scripts related to python. It provides a platform for Openstack where all the services are done in one place. It consists of languages that bind access to the OpenStack clouds, and complete API reference with easy interaction with REST API.
The role of the API server is to provide an interface between the external world and the cloud infrastructure.
A bare-metal node is used for the single-tenant cloud with high performance cluster computing. It also grants access to the bare-metal driver which is used for handling the provision of Openstack compute.
Token is defined as a type of authentication which is similar to password-based validation. Once the credentials are inserted by the user, the token gets generated through which the user gets authentication for keystone. With the generated token, the user can access the Openstack. The token comes for a limited time period. Once the time period is exceeded, it has to be renewed again.
A flat network manager is a place where all the virtual machines are using a single network, the same subnet, and bridge as created by the administrator. Therefore, all the virtual machines are said to be interconnected and are known as a flat network manager.
VLAN is used for providing more secure and separate networks for virtual machines. For every tenant, it has a separate IP range, bridge, and virtual network. This is the most favored choice of every multi-tenant or project environment.
A flat DHCP network manager is very much similar to the flat network manager except for the IP addresses that are assigned to the virtual machines are through DHCP. DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
The function of the cinder scheduler is that it creates requests for appropriate volume service. It is also known as routing volume.
The command used for removing the network interface from the bare-metal node is bare-metal-interface remove.
A bare-metal node consists of the following two things: Bare-metal node orchestrator Bare-metal node operating system
A bare-metal orchestrator is management software. For all the nodes in the cluster, it acts as a dispatcher.
A bare-metal node operating system is a base software. It used for running every node in the cluster.
The command used for transferring the volume from one owner to another in OpenStack is cinder transfer*.
Cells are the groups that are partitioned from the hosts of the Openstack compute cloud. These cells are later framed as trees.
Following are the networking options that are used in Openstack: Flat network-manager Flat DHCP network-manager VLAN network-manager
Following are the main components of identity user management: Users Tenants Roles
There are two basic functions of identity service in Openstack: User management Service catalog
Openstack is cloud computing for the future, it can be used to store a huge number of storage data, by using open stack we can create more virtual environments.
It is used to enhance the existing applications or develop new applications for SAAS It will create a strong foundation for server for developers It the better efficient scalability for low cost
Block storage, Ephemeral Storage, Object Storage, Block storage
Dynamic Host Configuration, Virtual Local area network
novaunpause NAME_OF_INSTANCE nova pause NAME_OF_INSTANCE
OpenStack Object Storage HTTP Filesystem GridFSMaster Openstack from industry experts. S3 RBD or Rados Block Device
Routers Ports Vendor Plugins Subnets Networks
cd .ssh ssh-keygen nova keypair-add –pub_key id_rsa.pub mykey
It will allow the remote server access the user from anywhere
API server Compute Workers (Nova-Compute) Message Queue (Rabbit-MQ Server) Volume Worker Network controller (Nova-Network) Scheduler
Sudo nova-manage user create user-name
Sudo nova-manage user create user-name
Yes, by using keystone role-list