OBS is an organizational breakdown structure which shows the existing, departments, units or teams which actually existed in the organization. It is arranged according to the work packages listed under each department. It is totally different from WBS because, WBS is the work break down structure which decomposes the total work into smaller manageable work packages.
The two most important techniques include Decomposition: This is the technique used to decompose the work packages defined in the WBS into activities. Rolling Wave Technique: This is iterative technique where the work to be done in the near future is planned in detail whereas the work to be done afterwards is prepared in higher level.
Constraint is nothing but the restriction applied to the project. These restrictions will affect the functioning of the project. Following are the constraints that would be applied on the project Scope constraint Schedule constraint cost constraint resource constraint quality constraint
CPM is also called critical path method which is used to calculate the scheduled time for the activities specified in the WBS. The Critical path method uses the forward pass method to calculate the time.
Float is the amount of time the activity or project phase can slip without affecting the project schedule. Two types of float which include free float and total float Free float: the amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor or violating a schedule constraint. Total float: the amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed or extended from its early start date without delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule constraint.
Different types of relationships that exists between the activities are Lead: the amount of time whereby the successor activity can be advanced with respect to the predecessor activity. Lag: The amount of time whereby a successor activity will be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity. Finish to start: relationship in which the successor activity cannot start until predecessor activity finished.. Finish to finished :relationship in which the successor activity cannot be finished until predecessor activity finished start to start :relationship in which the successor activity cannot start until predecessor activity starts Start to finish: relationship in which the successor activity cannot start until predecessor activity starts. What is a resource calendar and how is it important in schedule an activity? Resource calendars are the document that usually specifies the time of the resource be it manpower or physical resources available for the project. It specifies if any resource is on leave or not available for the scheduled time. It is very important in scheduling because it can help to determine the time needed to complete the activity in case of unavailability of the resource.
Baseline is the approved version of the cost and schedule plan. It would be used to measure the project status whether the project is under cost or under schedule. Its just like benchmarking the project.
Resource leveling is a schedule optimization technique used to level the resources if there is any over usage of resources in certain activities, and under use of resources in certain activities you use resource leveling to neutralize the situation and bring the project back on track.
It s a methodology that combines scope, schedule, cost and resource measurements to asses project performance and progress. Different techniques involves analogous estimation parametric estimation bottom – up estimation
The different types of organizational structure available are organic or simple functional multi dimensional matrix – strong matrix – weak matrix – balanced project oriented virtual
PMO is an organizational structure that standardizes the project related governance process and facilitates the sharing of resources methodologies, tools and techniques. There are mainly three different types of PMO’s in the organization. Supportive: Provides with the required templates, best practices, and training to the employees Controlling: Provide support and required compliance through various means. The degree of control provided by PMO is moderate Directive: They take control by directly involving in the projects. Projects managers are assigned by and report to the PMO. The degree of control is high.
It provides the schedule information where the activities are listed on vertical axis and dates are shown in horizontal axis. They are easy to use and commonly referred. They also have activity durations shown as horizontal bars placed according to start and finish dates.
WBS – it is also referred as work breakdown structure. This is used to decompose the total scope of the project into more manageable and relatable work packages to make the work simpler and easier to carry out and understand the project. The WBS is created by using decomposition tool.
Project operates in an environment that has a influence on them. These influencers have favorable or unfavorable effect on the project. There are mainly two types of influencers EEF and OPA. EEF – Environmental Enterprise Factors: This originates from outside the project and has impact on organization portfolio, program, or project level. OPA- Organizational Process assets – these arise from the inside the organization or portfolio or program or project.
Portfolio – portfolio is where the projects, programs, suisdary portfolios ad operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives. Programs – Related projects, subsidiary programs and program activities that are in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing them directly. Project- A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.
Project lifecycle is a series of phases that a project passes through from its start to completion. It provides the basic framework for managing the project. The different types of project lifecycle include predictive, iterative, incremental, agile and hybrid project lifecycle.
It is a collection of logically related project activities that culminates in completion of one or more deliverables. The phase in a lifecycle can be described by variety of attributes. It may be measurable and unique to a specific phase. Attribute may include date, number, duration and resource requirements.
The project lifecycle is managed by executing a series of project management activities known as project management processes. Every process produces one more outputs from one or more inputs using appropriate tools and techniques. The output may be deliverable or an outcome. Outcome is end result of processes. They apply globally across industries.
The five different types of process groups include Initiation Process Group Planning Process group Execution process group Monitoring and Controlling Process Group Closing Process group. What is the difference between work performance report, work performance information and work performance report? Work performance report – Raw details or information identified during activities performed to carry out project work. Work performance information – The performance data collected from various controlling processes analyzed in context and integrated based on relationship across areas Work performance data – the physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project which is intended to generate decisions or raise issues, actions or awareness.
Project charter is the document that authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources t activities. This document is issued by sponsor. Whereas the project management plan is the document that explains how the project is executed, monitored and controlled.
EEF internal to the organization include: Organization culture, structure and governance Geographic distribution of facilities and governance Infrastructure Information technology software Resource availability Employee capability EEF external to organization include: Market condition Social and cultural influence Legal restrictions Commercial database Academic research Government standards Describe Requirement Documentation and Requirement management plan? Requirement document is the document that describes the how the individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirement may be a resource or manpower. Requirement management plan: it is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the requirements will be analyzed, documented and managed.
The interface includes following: Tables: where the activities and resources are available when added. Gantt chart along with time scale :which shows the graphical representation of the activities Project detail window: it provides the detail of the project with all resources, activities and schedule.
The project manager who is in charge of the project should always invest in emotional intelligence by improving inbound and outbound competencies which include self awareness, self management and relationship management. The teams which succeed in developing team EI or become an emotionally competent group are effective. Additionally there is a reduction on staff reduction.
Agile resource management is on a rise and self organizing teams are a part of resource management. Resource performs themselves in the absence of the centralized control. This is totally different from centralized control where project manager takes the control. In this type of management generalized specialist will have a more planning than the subject matter experts and they continuously adapt to changing environment.
Resource management plan includes following components Identification of resources Acquiring resources Roles and responsibilities Authority Competence Project organization charts Project team resource management Training Team development Resource control and resource Plan.
Team charter is a document in the project management plan. It establishes team values, agreements, and operating guidelines for team it includes following contents Team values Communication guidelines Decision making criteria conflict resolution process meeting guidelines team agreements.
The amount and type of additional details supporting the resource estimate vary by application area. Regardless of level of detail, the supporting document should provide a clear and complete understanding of how resource estimate was derived. Supporting details include method used to develop estimate resources used to estimate constraints range of estimates confidence level of estimate documentation of indentified risks
Activity attribute is the extended description of the activity by identifying multiple components associated with each activity. During Initial stages they include unique activity identifier, WBS ID, activity label and name. After completion they may include activity descriptions, predecessor, successor activities and logical relationships. It can be used to perform where the work has to be performed; the project calendar has to be assigned.
The three main contracts available are Fixed price :- used when scope of project is very well defined Cost reimburse :- used when the scope is less and prone to changes Time and cost: – used when for small projects.
The documents created before initiation of project are Business Case: – this document provides the economic feasibility of project. It provides go or no go decision of the project Benefit management Plan : – the document provides the benefits of the project to be obtained after completion of project. These documents are usually created by sponsors.
The activity list includes the schedule activities required on the project, this document is updated periodically as the project progress. It includes activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed.
Activity attributes Activity list Assumption log Basis of estimates Change log Cost estimates Cost forecasts Issue log Lessons learned register Project communications Project schedule Quality metrics and quality reports Risk register Stakeholder register Team charter